is a State Subject. The state government's implement the
rural sanitation programme under state sector minimum needs
programme (MNP). The Central Government Supplements the
States efforts providing financial and technical assistance
through the Centrally sponsored Rural Sanitation Programme
The Centrally Sponsored Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSP) was
launched in 1986 with the objective of improving the quality
of life of the rural people and to provide privacy and dignity
to women. The concept of sanitation was expanded in 1993
to include personal hygiene, home sanitation, safe water,
garbage and excreta disposal and waste water disposal. The
components of the programme include construction of individual
sanitary latrines for households below the poverty line
(BPL), conversion of individual sanitary latrines, construction
of village sanitary complexes women, setting up of sanitary
marts, intensive campaign for awareness creation and health
- Accelerate coverage of rural population, especially among
households below the poverty line (BPL) with sanitation
facilities, complementing the efforts in rural water supply.
- Generate felt need through awareness creation and health
education involving voluntary organisations and panchayati
- Eradicate manual scavenging by converting all existing dry
latrines into low cost sanitary latrines.
- Encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies to
support other objectives.
The rural population below the poverty line.
The revised policy for implementation of the rural sanitation
programme during the 9th plan period has been approved
by the union cabinet. The salient features of the policy are
- Raise sanitation coverage to at least 50 percent by 9th
- Total sanitation campaign (TSC) in select districts with
50 percent allocation during first year.
- Balance 50 percent for existing allocation-based programme.
- Switch over from allocation based programme to a demand driven
- Shift from high subsidy to low subsidy regime.
- Greater beneficiary participation and private sector involvement.
- Active participation of NGOs/Cooperative institutions etc.
- Emphasize school sanitation.
- Increased technological options and adoption of Vertical
The total latrines constructed under the programme (CRSP+MNP)
upto the end of the Eighth plan period (1996-97) were
4,337,609 with a total expenditure of Rs. 757.62 crore.
The central allocation for the year 1997-98 was Rs. 100.00
crore; the state MNP provision was Rs. 209.83 crore. The
total latrines constructed in 1997-98 were 1.387,080.
During 1998-99 the Central allocation was Rs. 67.00 crore
as against the state MNP provision of Rs.213.34 crore
and 824.520 household latrines have been constructed up
to January 1999.
Under the revised programme the states are required to formulate
total sanitation campaigns (TSCs) in select districts. To
allow time for the proper grounding of the new approach, the
existing "allocation based programme" will also be continued
and would be phased out at the end of the 9th plan
period. While the first year will have 50 percent of funds
earmarked for the existing programme, only 30 percent will
be allotted in the next year followed by 10 percent during
the third year.
The state government should provide matching contribution under
the minimum needs programme (MNP) equivalent to the allocation
The extent of subsidy from Centre, state and and beneficiaries
/Panchayats for a few components of the programmes are in
the follwing ratio:
Programme Total Sanitation
Campaign (TSC) Normal
- Construction of household 60:20:20 60:20:20
Sanitary latrines, women's Complexes etc.
- School sanitation 60:30:10 60:30:10
- Alternate delivery mechanism 80:20 upto 5 per.
(Rural Sanitary Marts/Production of annual Centres)
The programme is being implemented through the state government
Departments/ Boards (PHED/ Panchayati Raj/ Rural Development).
very comprehensive baseline survey on knowledge, attitudes
and practices (KAP) in rural water supply and sanitation was
conducted during 1996-97 covering 39000 respondents in 74
districts throughout the country. The study showed that 55
percent of those with private latrines weere self-motivated.
Only 2 percent of the respondents claimed the existence of
subsidy as the major motivation factor, while 54 percent claimed
to have gone in for sanitary latrines due to convenience and
privacy. The study also showed that 51 percent of the beneficiaries
were willing to spend upto Rs. 100/- to acquire sanitary toilets.
Corrective Action Taken
Taking into account the deficiencies of the programme which
were mainly heavy reliance on subsidy, inadequate participation
of beneficiaries, limited choice of models and inadequate
involvement of NGOs, a comprehensive review of the rural sanitation
programme has been done. The changes effected in the programme
involve a major shift from a high-subsidy to a low-subsidy
regime, adoption of "Total Sanitation Campaign" approach,
choice of technology according to customer preferences and
greater community participation. School sanitation is an important
component of this programme.